Before we discuss various folk paintings of India we should know what is folk paintings and why they are so important in our rich art and cultural heritage.
Art reflects the aesthetic sense of human life and also reflects the advanced and vibrant culture. India is an ancient state where art and culture is rooted in the soul of all people The coordination of art and culture seen here will not happen in any other country of the world.
Folk art is the real mirror of folk cultural traditions of any region or place. Any cast or tribe whose folk and cultural arts tradition coming from generations to generation are called folk art.
Different provinces and states of India which have diverse forms of art culture having a unique folk paintings specified to that particular region.
So here we are trying to list some popular folk paintings form in India
It is a prominent painting of Mithilanchal region such as Darbhanga in Bihar, Madhubani and some areas of Nepal. Jitwarpur village in Madhubani district is the main center of this folk painting. In the early days, this painting developed into a rangoli, then later this art gradually descended into modern form on clothes, walls and paper. This domestic painting commissioned by the women of Mithila has also been adopted by men.
In this painting, especially the deity is also depicted. Pictures of Hindu deities, natural scenes such as the sun and moon, religious trees and plants like Tulsi and marriage scenes will be seen. Madhubani paintings are of two types – mural painting and aripan or alpana.
It is a custom to make it at three special places of the house, such as the place of worship, the Kohbar Room (Bedroom of married couple) and on the outer walls of the house at weddings or any special celebration. The Gods and Goddesses depicted in the Madhubani painting are Maa Durga, Kali, Sita-Ram, Radha-Krishna, Shiva-Parvati, Gauri-Ganesha and the ten avatars of Vishnu etc. Apart from these images, many natural and delightful scenes are also depicted.Mahasundari Devi Madhubani is a famous artist of Madhubani painting.
‘Patta’ means ‘cloth’. It is a traditional painting of Odisha. This painting depicts scenes related to the life of Subhadra, Balarama, Lord Jagannath, Dashavatar and Krishna. In Bengal art, visual representation is done by component of patchitra painting in the performance of songs.
Pattachitra is thus a painting done on canvas, and is manifested by rich colourful application, creative motifs, and designs, and portrayal of simple themes, mostly mythological in depiction All colours used in the Paintings are natural and paintings are made fully old traditional way by Chitrakaras that is Oriya Painter
The paintings of Orissa can be divided into three categories from the point of view of medium, i.e. paintings on cloth or ‘Patta Chitra’, paintings on walls or ‘Bhitti Chitra’ and palm leaf engravings or “Tala Patra Chitra’ or “Pothi, Chitra’. The style of all these remains more or less the same at a specific time because the then artists were commissioned to work in all these media, it is believed. the painting the ‘pattachitra’ resemble the old murals of Odisha especially religious centres of Puri, Konark and Bhubaneshwar region, dating back to the 5th century BC. The best work is found in and around Puri, especially in the village of Raghurajpu
It is a traditional painting of Rathwas of Gujarati and people of Bhil tribe. It is more than ritual rather than art form. The largest festival of Bhil tribe is made on the walls of the house at Pithora. It is considered to be the cradle of this art in Pithora region of Madhya Pradesh. The contribution of the Bhil tribe in the development of this art is remarkable. Traditional colors were used in this art. Often this painting was done on the walls of houses.
But in the latest time it has started to be done on papers, canvas, clothes etc. This painting is made on the walls by the people of Rathwa, Bhil and Nayak tribes living in Tezgarh village (Central Gujarat), 90 km from Baroda. Pithora painting has special significance in the lives of these tribal people and they believe that By painting this painting on the walls of the houses, peace, prosperity and harmony is developed in the house.
‘Kalmari’ literally means pictures made with a pen. It is one of the major folk arts of India. Kalamkari is a type of handicraft in which an impression is made with colored blocks on cotton cloth by hand. The term Kalamkari is used for both art and fabric. This art is mainly practiced in Machilipatnam and Krishna in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh state of India.
This painting is believed to have originated in the Kalighat temple in Kolkata in the 19th century. In this painting, mainly depictions of the characters of Hindu deities and traditional mythology were seen at that time
In ancient times, the painters of this art used to depict various gods and goddesses through this art by singing it to the people. In this style of painting, painters depict scenes based on the Ramayana, Mahabharata and other kimvadantis in long papers and sing and explain the illustration
Floor painting (septum painting) Farsh painting
It is the ancient cultural tradition and folk art of India. Different states have different names. It is usually made with dry and natural colors on auspicious occasions like festivals, fasting, worship, festive marriage etc
Chak Purna in Uttar Pradesh, Apan in Uttarakhand, Mandana in Rajasthan; Magullu in Andhra Pradesh; Aripana in Bihar; Rangoli in Maharashtra; Alpana in West Bengal; Athiya in Gujarat; Rangwali in Karnataka; Kollam in Tamil Nadu; Aroof in Himachal Pradesh; And in Kerala known by various names like Kalma Jattu.
The name of this painting belongs to a small tribal class living in the tribal state of Maharashtra. These ornate paintings are made on the floors and walls of tribal houses and places of worship such as Gond and Kol. Trees, birds, males and females together provide perfection to a Worli picture.
These paintings are made by tribal women on auspicious occasions as a part of routine. The content of these paintings is predominantly religious and they are made using simple and local objects such as rice lehi and gum of local vegetables and they are used on a different color background through geometric shapes such as square, triangular and circular.
The daily life of animals, birds and people is also a partial form of the content of pictures. The pictures are expanded by adding other subjects in the form of series.
The tableau of the Worli lifestyle is beautifully presented in simple shapes. Unlike other tribal art types, Worli painting does not promote religious images and thus presents a more secular form.
The painting based on the life of Lord Buddha and his teachings is called Thanka painting. This painting is an exemplary example of Indian, Nepali and Tibetan culture. Through this, Tibetan religion, culture and philosophical values have been expressed. It is usually made of washed cotton car of cotton cloth
This painting is also called spiritual painting because the subject of this painting is religious and spiritual. Since it is a painting based on the life and teachings of Lord Buddha, it is also called Buddhist painting